Chromosomes, our threads of life, and Genes

At the time of conception, two living germ cell—the sperm from the father and the ovum, or egg, from the mother—unite to produce a new individual. The male and female germ cells are known technically as gametes, and the single cell they form at the moment of conception is called the zygote. Both the egg and the sperm contain tiny thread-like structures called chromosomes. These have been called, somewhat poetically, the “threads of life.”

In 1962, the Nobel Prize for Medicine and physiology was awarded to James Watson, Maurice Wilkins, and Francis Crick for the discoveries in the field of the chemistry and mechanics of heredity. Each chromosome (threads) is made up of long molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid, called DNA for short.

The atoms of a DNA molecule are arranged in two long strands twisted together in a complex double spiral, along each spiral are ultramicroscopic areas called genes, which are the bearers of heredity. The order of the atoms which make up a particular gene serves as a blueprint or master code which govern the formation of the parts of the body for which that gene responsible. The branch of biology concerned with the mechanism of heredity is called genetics.

Psychology Symbol of Dealing with Air Hunger

One of the constant requirements of the body is oxygen. Yet we have no sensory awareness of oxygen lack as such. A miner entering a pocket where oxygen has been replaced by marsh gas (methane) loses consciousness without any feeling of air hunger to give him a warning. So let’s focus on the Psychology Symbol of Dealing with Air Hunger.

It is when carbon dioxide collects in the lungs (as when the breath is held or the respiratory pathways are obstructed) that we feel immediate discomfort and eventually intense pain if out reflex breathing out does not get rid of the carbon dioxide and draw in air. The effective stimulus to the mechanism of air hunger is the presence of excess carbon dioxide rather than the deficiency of oxygen.

The importance of hunger to continual oxygen supply to the body, especially to the brain, cannot be overemphasized. Although the nervous system consumes oxygen in very small amounts, this consumption goes on constantly, and severe oxygen deprivation (anoxia) for periods as brief as a minute can result in actual neural damage.

Environmental Psychology and Labyrinthine Sense

Every individual is aware of changes in his body position even when they are not the result of conscious effort or muscular contraction. An astronaut experiencing weightlessness will know every time his head changes position, even though he may not have moved it himself. In this post, we’ll go a little deeper into Environmental Psychology and Labyrinthine Sense.

The receptors involved in giving you a cue to body position when no muscular activity is involved are located in the labyrinth, or inner ear. Within the bony labyrinthine are the semicircular canals–three loops extending in three different planes.

These receptors are called the labyrinthine or vestibular receptors, and their function is to keep you informed of your position in space–whether you are moving up or down, right or left, backward or forward. When your body’s motion in space is accelerating or decelerating, hair calls in the ampullae–swellings at the base of the semicircular canals–are the chief receptors stimulated.

Physiological Psychology and Memory, Metamemory, and Language after Brain Injury

Early research projects focused on gaining a better understanding of the relationships between memory impairment and how well individuals judge their own memory ability after brain injury. This is important because of the potential for dual disabilities after brain injury: poor memory and learning, and not knowing that memory is impaired, called ‘metamemory’. If you think your memory is fine, then you are not likely to try to improve it or compensate for it using strategies. So let’s go into  Physiological Psychology and Memory, Metamemory, and Language after Brain Injury a little deeper on this page.

Early studies showed that there were learning situations in which adults with brain injury were as good as those without brain injury at judging their memory, but that when uncertain about their memory adults with brain injury were overconfident.

Those whose brain injury included frontal lobe injury, however, were not as good at judging their memory as those with brain injury but without frontal lobe injury. Follow-up studies showed that even though their memory for stories was worse than adults without brain injury, those with brain injury were just as good at judging their memory for stories.

Applied Psychology – Cognitive Music Therapy

Stewart is a four-year-old boy who came to me in the fall of 2005. Stewart shows a strong underlying intelligence, social friendliness, and imagination, but it was besieged by some obvious lags. Most particularly, his attention lags, and his response to any request or command will happen an indeterminate amount of time from the request. So let’s take a look at a case study of Applied Psychology – Cognitive Music Therapy.

Sometimes he doesn’t respond at all, appearing completely “gone”, and other times he is very easily distracted into losing the thread of a game or exercise. His muscle tone is low, his movement range limited and his curiosity for new explorations in movement is often low. However, over the longer term of a lesson, he retains very well what he has done and remembers its details acutely.

Stewart’s mother gave me a lengthy evaluation of Stewart from a variety of doctors and therapists. Among the many issues raised in this evaluation, one jumped out at me right away: “Stewart habitually carries his wait on the insides of his feet. We recommend orthotics to correct this.”

The Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Relaxation


Relaxation-induced cortisol changes within lunch breaks – an experimental longitudinal worksite field study

How do you spend your lunch break? Progressive muscle relaxation during your lunchtime routine could impact on your immediate levels of cortisol, as well as your levels of long-term chronic stress. In this post, we’ll take a closer look at the cognitive-behavioral model of relaxation.

A recent study was set up to advance knowledge of how to maximize recovery during lunch break routines, based on the cognitive-behavioral model of relaxation. According to the authors, “optimizing the recovery impact of lunch breaks may be a promising path for solving problems of high stress and the resulting impact on performance, health, and quality of life”.

Environmental Psychology – Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for ADHD Treatment

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an empirically-based psychotherapy used for the treatment of various childhood mental health disorders. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has attracted increased attention over the last two decades. This post addresses Environmental Psychology – Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for ADHD Treatment.

Research shows that ADHD is, in fact, a real disorder stemming from malfunctions with a person’s prefrontal lobe of the brain. While medication management is effective in treating certain symptoms of the disorder, the best results are seen with medication management plus cognitive behavioral therapy techniques.

ADHD Diagnosis in Children

ADHD is often diagnosed in childhood, though adults struggle with this disorder just the same. It is first important for the cognitive behavioral therapists to understand and express to the parents of a child with ADHD that it is a medical condition and largely beyond the control of the child. Parents often become frustrated and discouraged with their ADHD child, feeling as though they have tried everything to improve the child’s behavior to no avail.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Depressive Thoughts

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an empirically tested form of psychotherapy that has been shown to be effective in improving various mental health disorders, including anxiety, depression, and anger. Cognitive behavioral therapy and its components have progressed over the last 50 years or so.

One of the founders of the cognitive behavioral therapy model, Albert Ellis, was one of the first psychologists who recognized that thoughts or beliefs were directly related to his or her emotional experiences and behaviors. Albert Ellis developed a psychotherapy called Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), which is still commonly practiced in the field of psychology today.

Another front-runner in cognitive behavioral therapy was Aaron Beck, whose Cognitive Therapy model also involved focusing on the client’s thoughts as the route to their mental health dysfunction. Both Cognitive Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are effective in treating depressive disorders.

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy for Anger Management

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a type of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) developed by psychologist Albert Ellis. REBT has been shown to be an effective treatment in anger management. In this post, we’ll get into the subject of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy for Anger Management.

Emotive Behavior Therapy is useful to not only define the trigger and emotional/behavioral consequence for one’s anger but also to identify the irrational beliefs associated with the anger response.

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) emphasizes four categories of irrational beliefs that lead to an angry response. It is important for a Cognitive Behavioral Therapist (CBT) to teach his clients that it is not a specific trigger that causes anger, but once irrational interpretations of the trigger that lead to the anger response.

It is important for a client involved in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to understand that one of the main goals of treatment is to change his beliefs, more so than the trigger itself.

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Behavior Management and Parenting

Parents often seek out psychotherapy services to help remediate their children’s behavior problems. There is little evidence to support that play therapy alone is an effective treatment for childhood behavioral problems. Here, we’ll discuss some aspects of the theory and practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Behavior Management and Parenting.

For childhood behavior problems to be effectively remediated, it is necessary for parents to be included in the treatment, if not be the sole participators in the psychotherapeutic process. Depending on the age of the child and symptoms, children may be included in very few sessions.

Parental Psychotherapy Intake

Parents first have an intaking session for psychotherapy. It is common during the intake for behavior therapists to see a parent explain her child’s behavior problems, and place the blame on the child for the behavior, and frequently fail to see how their own actions or passivity have contributed to these problems.